Pencil is a stationery and painting that was originally made of pure graphite (example Staedtler Pensil Terbaik Untuk Anak). The writing is done by scraping graphite onto the media. However, pure graphite tends to break easily, too soft, giving dirty effect when the media rub with your hands, and get your hands dirty when held. Because it then created a mixture of graphite with clay so that the composition harder. Furthermore, the composition of the mixture is wrapped with paper or wood.
The use of lead and graphite began in ancient Greece. Both give the effect of gray streaks, although a little more black graphite. Graphite is very rarely used until later in 1564 found to contain large amounts of pure graphite in Borrowdale, a valley in the Lake District of northern England. Although it looked like coal, minerals can not be burned, and it left a shiny black, and easily removed over a writing surface. At this time the term graphite is still confused with tin, lead, and plumbago, meaning “like lead” given the nature of almost the same. Hence the term lead pencil (pencil lead) is still used today. Because the texture is oily, chunks wrapped in sheepskin or small pieces of tin berbentuktongkat bandaged with a rope. No one knows who first had the idea to incorporate the black lead into wooden container, but in the 1560’s, primitive pencils had reached the European continent.
Shortly thereafter, the lead was mined and exported to meet the demands of artists; and in the 17th century, can be said lead has been used everywhere. At the same time, pencil makers experimented with black lead to produce a better writing instrument. Pure and easily extracted, lead from Borrowdale be the target of thieves and black marketers. To overcome this, the British Parliament passed a law in 1752 stipulating that could lead thief jailed or banished to a penal colony.
But in 1779, a chemist Carl W. Scheele researched and concluded that the graphite has a much different chemical properties with lead. Graphite is pure carbon molecular composition of the tender. Finally in 1789, geologists Germany, Abraham G. Werner gave the name graphite, which is derived from the Greek word graphein, which means writing. Thus, the contents of a pencil instead of tin.
For many years English graphite cornered the pencil-making industry because it was pure enough to use without further processing. Because the European graphite was inferior, pencil manufacturers there experimented with ways to improve pencil lead. French engineer Nicolas-Jacques Conté mixed powdered graphite with clay, forming the mixture into sticks, and burned it in the fireplace. By varying the ratio of graphite to clay, he was able to make leads that produced different shades of black-a process used until now.
In the 19th century, the manufacture of pencils into a big business. Graphite is found in several places, including Siberia, Germany, and is now called the Czech Republic. In Germany and then in the United States, a number of factories opened. Mechanization and mass production prices down, and at the beginning of the 20th century, even school children using a pencil.
Initially graphite pencil by wrapping paper torn suit the wearer. But later found a more practical and efficient way to covering the entire graphite rod with two wooden slats ditoreh to provide a place for graphite rod and then put together.